what is the difference between biblical and modern hebrew
Biblical Hebrew and Modern Hebrew are both forms of the Hebrew language, but they have significant differences in terms of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and usage. Here's a general breakdown:
Vocabulary: Biblical Hebrew contains many words that are no longer in use in Modern Hebrew, or their meanings have changed over time. Conversely, Modern Hebrew has many new words to accommodate modern concepts and inventions that didn't exist during biblical times.
Grammar: There are several grammatical differences between Biblical and Modern Hebrew. For example, Biblical Hebrew uses verb forms and tenses in ways that are different from Modern Hebrew. The verb system in Biblical Hebrew is based more on aspect (the kind of action or state being described) rather than tense (when the action or state occurs).
Pronunciation: Modern Hebrew pronunciation has been influenced by speakers of different native languages over the past century, leading to some differences in pronunciation from the biblical language. The most striking difference is probably the loss of the "ghayin" sound, which is a kind of voiced pharyngeal fricative that doesn't exist in English, but is common in Arabic. In Modern Hebrew, it has merged with another sound, "aleph".
Usage of Niqqud (vowel points): In Biblical Hebrew, niqqud is used extensively to mark vowels and stress. In contrast, Modern Hebrew is typically written without niqqud, except in texts for beginning readers or in situations where the correct pronunciation of a word is not obvious from the context.
Syntax: The word order in sentences in Biblical Hebrew often starts with the verb (VSO - Verb Subject Object). In Modern Hebrew, the syntax is usually Subject Verb Object (SVO), which is more similar to English.
Language Evolution: Like all languages, Hebrew has evolved over time. Biblical Hebrew covers a span of many centuries and includes linguistic shifts within the period itself. Modern Hebrew has been influenced by European languages and includes many loanwords from English, Russian, Yiddish, and Arabic, among others.
Despite these differences, the Hebrew used in Israel today is the most direct descendant of the ancient language, and many of the words, roots and grammatical structures have remained the same. People who know Modern Hebrew can often understand the gist of Biblical Hebrew texts, although they may need to study Biblical Hebrew specifically to fully understand the subtleties and nuances of the biblical texts.